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Also avoid the bathroom scale—weight is deceptive, and not a measure of body fat. Instead, waist size is a better way for most people to monitor body fat—as fat-burning progresses, we get leaner with a smaller waist.

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In our study, we defined the condition of overfat as having sufficient excess body fat to impair health.

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This leaves you, the individual, to address the problem of managing your health by personalizing the way you eat. That is the focus of this book.

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So it’s important to focus only on yourself and not make comparisons to some “normal” ranges that don’t really exist, or certain other people or periods in your past when body fat levels appeared lower. Monitoring your personal progress is best done with a simple measure of your waist.

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Consuming refined carbohydrates causes people to be hungrier, and crave sugar, with the result of eating more junk food. It’s not hunger from a lack of food, but from a lack of healthy, nutrient-rich food, all triggering metabolic impairments in the form of hormone imbalances and reducing the body’s ability to burn body fat for energy. The result is that we keep storing fat.

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Quantifying belly fat is easy, by measuring our waist. Waist circumference may be a more practical and superior solution than using the bathroom scale or BMI for identification of one’s overfat state.

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Over the years, various forms of waist measurements have been used, but the best current one is the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). This is accurate for adults and children of both genders

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WHtR of .50 and above measured at the level of the belly button (umbilicus) indicates being overfat,

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The key message is simple: Our waist circumference should be less than half our height.

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Getting rid of your sweet tooth is an important part of the process of getting healthy and burning more body fat.

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as you eliminate junk food you must add healthy food into your meals to avoid a caloric deficit. In particular, include healthy fats like coconut and olive oils, butter or ghee, along with a lot of vegetables except for corn and potatoes. An important guide is hunger.

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Protein and fat in the diet can help hunger too, especially in relation to burning off body fat. Studies show that meat-based diets containing 25 to 30 percent protein can result in significant weight loss. Another study demonstrated that 20 grams of supplemental whey protein taken three times daily significantly helped exercising individuals lose weight and body fat.

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But if you are ravenous after a workout, it may be that it’s not aerobic, but anaerobic, and promoting less burning of fat calories.

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Controlling hunger by avoiding sugar and other refined carbohydrates is an important goal if we want to burn off more body fat.

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The notion of no-pain, no-gain did not originate with the running boom or Jane Fonda, but actually much farther back with Benjamin Franklin.

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I wrote an important article entitled “The Social Stress of ‘No-Pain No-Gain’” with sociology professor Rik Scarce. We addressed the no-pain, no-gain mindset, born out of economics, and with the potential to cause undue stress. The problem is not unique to the exercise community but endemic to society as a whole.

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In 1976, psychiatrist William Glasser’s book Postitive Addiction

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schedule of fewer than five hours a week of working out may be the safe upper range for long-term cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. In addition, two days off from exercise, and refraining from daily high-intensity exercise can help maintain a good balance of health and fitness.

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for those who jog between 1 and 2.5 h per week, at a slow to moderate pace, at a frequency of about 2 or 3 times per week.”

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While this can be measured in a laboratory, the easiest way to monitor each exercise session to ensure aerobic development is by checking your heart rate. Lower heart rate exercise can build the aerobic system and burn more body fat—as long as you avoid junk food.

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b. If you are injured, have regressed in training or competition, get more than two colds or bouts of flu per year, have allergies or asthma, or if you have been inconsistent or are just getting back into training, subtract an additional 5.

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If it is difficult to decide which of two groups best fits you, choose the group or outcome that results in the lower heart rate.

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Once a maximum aerobic heart rate is found, a range from this heart rate to 10 beats below could be used for training.

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This evaluation is called the maximum aerobic function (MAF) test.

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For more details about this and other athletic training information, see my Big Book of Endurance Training and Racing.

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Health care accounted for almost 18 percent of the gross domestic product, with the estimates for 2017 to be 22 percent. To put the 2015 numbers into perspective, $3.2 trillion is nearly $10,000 per person; that’s almost $40,000 a year for a family of four, while the median household income of this family the same year was just over $56,000.

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After evaluating him, and his lifestyle habits, I gave him a comprehensive report, including recommendations I knew would reverse his poor health and make him feel young again. It included: –   Improving his diet, providing details about the healthy balance of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, the need to eat a lot of vegetables, and the importance of avoiding skipping meals during his busy workday. –   A simple exercise program, with a variety of options. –   The need to quit smoking was obvious, so I offered a number of programs that had good success, and the possible option of quitting cold turkey. –   Finally, I suggested he reduce the consumption of alcohol from three to four drinks a day to a moderate level of two.

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If you’re among the sheep, the herd is headed for the cliff.

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“How old would you be if you didn’t know how old you were?”

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Coconut oil and butter are the safest fats for cooking, followed by olive oil, lard, and duck fat; the last three contain some polyunsaturated fats so care should be taken not to heat too high. Most other fats are high in polyunsaturated oils and very prone to oxidizing when exposed to heat, producing free radicals—avoid corn, safflower, sesame, soy, peanut, and canola oils.